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Les Exploits d'un Jeune Don Juan (French Edition)
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I wish to be contacted with the results of the investigation. If one can risk the comparison, the same was true for Bousbir. Figure 5.
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Casablanca, Reception Guard of the red-light district. Bousbir was among the most picturesque stops of their journey to the Protectorate.
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Bousbir in fact was not the only red-light district in North Africa to attract tourists. Duvivier, we follow two rich French couples venture into the casbah of Algiers to take in the spectacle of exoticism and local prostitution, which indeed served as a first-rate asset for tourism Ferhati , The element of misery points to a third interpretation of tourism at Bousbir. It was portrayed in multiple postcards fig.
Nowhere else can a visitor to take in such an agglomeration. Thousands and thousands of shacks made out of metal sheets coming from old cans. Slumming was a tourist practice that arose at the end of the nineteenth century, and for the wealthy residents of London or New York consisted of visiting the neighborhoods of the most impoverished classes of the city, ethnic and sexual minorities, so as to be scandalized while enjoying the spectacle of their alterity and deviance, which evidently reassured the visitors in their sense of their proper identity and the value of their norms of decency Heap , Koven One saw at work in Bousbir a transgression of norms, if not of the law.
Europeans women as well as men? A visit to Bousbir formed part in this way in the object lesson of colonial tourism and justified colonization in its civilizing mission—despite the fact that it was the colonial authority that had orchestrated the red-light district. The red-light masterpiece! He has captured Bousbir from up high from an airplane. These images show an achievement of urban planning, from which one perceives the style, uniqueness, audacity, scope, order and modernity of Bousbir—in short, its success.
Bousbir counts among the extraordinary achievements of French colonization, following in the example of bridges, dams, ports, hospitals and schools, which, as manifest proof of the benefits of the French presence, participated in other ways in the colonial object lesson fig. It was, furthermore, due to colonial planning and control that the trip to Bousbir could be made under good conditions of comfort and security. Figure 7. Cover of the tourist guide Casablanca and its region, Fundamentally, the appeal of Bousbir was in making available—both morally scandalous and politically admirable—the indigenous female body.
Tourism to Bousbir was essentially and inextricably colonial and sexual. The eroticization of the Empire inherent to the colonial geographic imaginary and the power imbalances which transformed indigenous women into potential prostitutes had turned the Empire, in the eyes of Westerners, into a giant brothel. To evoke colonial tourism when talking of Bousbir is not simply to refer its context. It is rather to emphasize that colonial ideology and colonial relations of power formed the foundation for the touristic and prostitution-related activities that took place in the district, and that the visit, in turn, served as an object lesson justifying and reproducing the colonial order.
In the French empire, also manifest were a variety of forms of the inverse model of identity tourism based on self-segregation and the reproduction of European models of the thermal spa Jennings or mountain resort Jennings , for which Dalat, in the high plateaus of the Annamite range in Vietnam, or Ifrane, in the mid-Atlas mountains of Morocco established in fig. On an axis situating the attractiveness of a tourist site either in terms of identity or alterity, Ifrane and Bousbir would stand at each extreme, between which stood more composite examples in Morocco.
Figure 8. Ifrane, general view of the city center covered in snow, CAP.
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The presence of tourists in Bousbir is mentioned in so many accounts that one can suppose that it was deemed shocking, yet it was never truly denounced. Without sources, it is difficult to know what the sex workers themselves thought of them, but it is likely that the tourists, rather wealthy, constituted a significant complementary source of income for them, especially through the erotic-exotic shows. In the s, when they considered establishing red-light districts similar to Bousbir elsewhere, the notion caused some concern.
The scandal of joining tourism to prostitution however had however been evoked some years before, but as a figure in the rhetoric of third-world activism.
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Conversely, some have pointed to the common elements between the motivations of clients of sex workers Ryan and Kinder , or the practices of the clients of strip-tease clubs Franck , and those of tourists. The eroticism of the body extends into [the surroundings just as the exoticism of the surroundings extends to the body. It was exactly to play upon these processes by which exoticism and eroticism feed one-another that the red-light district of Casablanca was made to look like a casbah. It is by the same movement that the body and the landscape, on the one hand, and tourism and prostitution, on the other, end up converging.
In this way it seems reasonable to qualify all visitors to Bousbir not only as tourists but further as sex tourists. Bousbir furthermore perfectly fulfills the defining criteria for sexscapes, a term coined to describe the major destinations for international sex tourism Brennan Figure 9. Casablanca, Bousbir main square and movie theater. La Cigogne editions. Figure Typical scenes and people. Tea in the red-light district. La Cicogne editions. To say that Bousbir anticipated sexual tourism is less useful than to interrogate, in light of the district, the degree to which current sex tourism presents aspects which are neo colonial.
On the other hand, interpreting prostitution as a form of tourism is heuristically. To show how all visitors to Bousbir appealed to the offer of prostitution is less interesting than to analyze, by way of the case of the district, how a visit to a sex worker presents a touristic dimension.
In most European countries, the majority of sex workers are immigrants. Why talk about sex tourism when it is the client who travels, but not when it is the sex worker Oppermann The erotic appeal of the sex workers could pertain to their exoticism in Paris just as in Bousbir, for reasons which are similar and inherent to neo colonial ideology and relations of power. The difference is only that, in the first case, it is the sex worker who has paid the economic, symbolic, and social costs of displacement.
It shows that sex tourism was one form of colonial tourism, and illustrates processes of exoticization and eroticization which made certain colonies into touristic resources.