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Most of these words derived from the Hispano-Celtic Gallaecian language of northwestern Iberia, and are very often shared with Galician since both languages share a common origin in the medieval language of Galician-Portuguese. A few of these words existed in Latin as loanwords from other Celtic sources, often Gaulish.

Altogether these are over 1, words, some verbs and toponymic names of towns, rivers, utensils and plants. As they adopted the Roman civilization and language, however, these people contributed with some Germanic words to the lexicon. The Germanic languages influence also exists in toponymic surnames and patronymic surnames borne by Visigoth sovereigns and their descendants, and it dwells on placenames such as Ermesinde , Esposende and Resende where sinde and sende are derived from the Germanic sinths military expedition and in the case of Resende, the prefix re comes from Germanic reths 'council'.

Other examples of Portuguese names, surnames and town names of Germanic toponymic origin include Henrique, Henriques , Vermoim, Mandim, Calquim, Baguim, Gemunde, Guetim, Sermonde and many more, are quite common mainly in the old Suebi and later Visigothic dominated regions, covering today's Northern half of Portugal and Galicia.

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Between the 9th and early 13th centuries, Portuguese acquired some to words from Arabic by influence of Moorish Iberia. Starting in the 15th century, the Portuguese maritime explorations led to the introduction of many loanwords from Asian languages. From the 16th to the 19th centuries, because of the role of Portugal as intermediary in the Atlantic slave trade , and the establishment of large Portuguese colonies in Angola, Mozambique, and Brazil, Portuguese acquired several words of African and Amerind origin, especially names for most of the animals and plants found in those territories.

While those terms are mostly used in the former colonies, many became current in European Portuguese as well. Finally, it has received a steady influx of loanwords from other European languages, especially French and English. These are by far the most important languages when referring to loanwords. Many Portuguese settlers to Colonial Brazil were from northern and insular Portugal, [97] apart from some historically important illegal immigrants from elsewhere in Europe, such as Galicia, France and the Netherlands.

Between and , , Europeans overwhelmingly Portuguese settled in Brazil, while , Europeans settled in the United States for the same given time. Portuguese belongs to the West Iberian branch of the Romance languages , and it has special ties with the following members of this group:. Portuguese and other Romance languages namely French and Italian are moderately mutually intelligible, and share considerable similarities in both vocabulary and grammar. Portuguese speakers will usually need some formal study before attaining strong comprehension in those Romance languages, and vice versa.

However, Portuguese and Galician are mutually intelligible , and Spanish is highly asymmetrically comprehensible to Portuguese speakers. Portunhol , a form of code-switching , has a more lively use and is more readily mentioned in popular culture in South America.


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  • Said code-switching is not to be confused with the portunhol spoken on the borders of Brazil with Uruguay dialeto do pampa and Paraguay dialeto dos brasiguaios , and of Portugal with Spain barranquenho , that are Portuguese dialects spoken natively by thousands of people, which have been heavily influenced by Spanish. Portuguese and Spanish are the only Ibero-Romance languages, and perhaps the only Romance languages with such thriving inter-language forms, in which visible and lively bilingual contact dialects and code-switching have formed, in which functional bilingual communication is achieved through attempting an approximation to the target foreign language known as 'Portunhol' without a learned acquisition process, but nevertheless facilitates communication.

    There is an emerging literature focused on such phenomena including informal attempts of standardization of the linguistic continua and their usage. The closest relative of Portuguese is Galician, which is spoken in the autonomous community region and historical nationality of Galicia northwestern Spain. The two were at one time a single language, known today as Galician-Portuguese , but they have diverged especially in pronunciation and vocabulary due to the political separation of Portugal from Galicia.

    It is "considered a rarity, a living vestige of the medieval language that ranged from Cantabria to Mondego [ In particular, like Portuguese, it uses the future subjunctive, the personal infinitive, and the synthetic pluperfect.

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    Hall, Jr. Many linguists consider Galician to be a co-dialect of the Portuguese language. It is called eonaviego or gallego-asturiano by its speakers. It should be noticed that the diversity of dialects of the Portuguese language is known since the time of medieval Portuguese-Galician language when it coexisted with the Lusitanian-Mozarabic dialect, spoken in the south of Portugal.

    Also Contador d'Argote distinguishes three main varieties of dialects: the local dialects, the dialects of time, and of profession work jargon. He also makes reference to the overseas dialects, the rustic dialects, the poetic dialect and that of prose. Dinis decided to call it "Portuguese language", [] the erudite version used and known as Galician-Portuguese the language of the Portuguese court and all other Portuguese dialects were spoken at the same time.

    In a historical perspective the Portuguese language was never just one dialect. Just like today there is a standard Portuguese actually two among the several dialects of Portuguese, in the past there was Galician-Portuguese as the "standard", coexisting with other dialects.

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    In nearby Larantuka , Portuguese is used for prayers in Holy Week rituals. The Japanese—Portuguese dictionary Nippo Jisho was the first dictionary of Japanese in a European language, a product of Jesuit missionary activity in Japan. Building on the work of earlier Portuguese missionaries, the Dictionarium Anamiticum, Lusitanum et Latinum Annamite—Portuguese—Latin dictionary of Alexandre de Rhodes introduced the modern orthography of Vietnamese , which is based on the orthography of 17th-century Portuguese.

    The Romanization of Chinese was also influenced by the Portuguese language among others , particularly regarding Chinese surnames ; one example is Mei. For instance, as Portuguese merchants were presumably the first to introduce the sweet orange in Europe, in several modern Indo-European languages the fruit has been named after them.


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    Neapolitan , an orange is portogallo or purtuallo , literally " the Portuguese one ", in contrast to standard Italian arancia. Beginning in the 16th century, the extensive contacts between Portuguese travelers and settlers, African and Asian slaves, and local populations led to the appearance of many pidgins with varying amounts of Portuguese influence. As each of these pidgins became the mother tongue of succeeding generations, they evolved into fully fledged creole languages , which remained in use in many parts of Asia, Africa and South America until the 18th century.

    Some Portuguese-based or Portuguese-influenced creoles are still spoken today, by over 3 million people worldwide, especially people of partial Portuguese ancestry.

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    Some would describe the phonology of Portuguese as a blend of Spanish , Gallo-Romance e. French and the languages of northern Italy especially Genoese , but with a deeper Celtic influence. There is a maximum of 9 oral vowels, 2 semivowels and 21 consonants; though some varieties of the language have fewer phonemes.

    There are also five nasal vowels , which some linguists regard as allophones of the oral vowels. Like Catalan and German , Portuguese uses vowel quality to contrast stressed syllables with unstressed syllables. Unstressed isolated vowels tend to be raised and sometimes centralized. A notable aspect of the grammar of Portuguese is the verb. Morphologically, more verbal inflections from classical Latin have been preserved by Portuguese than by any other major Romance language.

    Portuguese and Spanish share very similar grammar.

    Portuguese also has some grammatical innovations not found in other Romance languages except Galician and Fala :. Portuguese is written with 26 letters of the Latin script , making use of five diacritics to denote stress, vowel height, contraction, nasalization, and etymological assibilation acute accent , circumflex , grave accent , tilde , and cedilla. Accented characters and digraphs are not counted as separate letters for collation purposes.

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    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Romance language that originated in Portugal. Language family. Old Portuguese Galician-Portuguese. Writing system. Signed forms. Cultural language. Native language. Official and administrative language. Cultural or secondary language. Portuguese-speaking minorities.

    Portuguese-based creole languages. Main article: History of the Portuguese language. Main articles: Geographic distribution of Portuguese and Geographical distribution of Portuguese speakers. Main article: List of territorial entities where Portuguese is an official language. Main articles: Portuguese dialects and Portuguese in the Americas. No data. Main article: Portuguese vocabulary. See also: Reintegrationism. Main article: Portuguese-based creole languages. Main article: Portuguese phonology. Main article: Portuguese grammar.

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    Main article: Portuguese orthography.